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Participation of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase in the Regulation of 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Level in Erythrocytes

K. V. Fokina, M. Y. Yazykova, P. V. Danshina, E. V. Schmalhausen, and V. I. Muronetz*

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 Russia; fax: (095) 939-3181; E-mail: muronets@bio.chem.msu.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received May 26, 1999
Data are presented concerning the possible participation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in regulation of the glycolytic pathway and the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in erythrocytes. Experimental support has been obtained for the hypothesis according to which a mild oxidation of GAPDH must result in acceleration of glycolysis and in decrease in the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate due to the acyl phosphatase activity of the mildly oxidized enzyme. Incubation of erythrocytes in the presence of 1 mM hydrogen peroxide decreases 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and causes accumulation of 3-phosphoglycerate. It is assumed that the acceleration of glycolysis in the presence of oxidative agents described previously by a number of authors could be attributed to the acyl phosphatase activity of GAPDH. A pH-dependent complexing of GAPDH and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase is found to determine the fate of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate that serves as a substrate for the synthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate as well as for the 3-phosphoglycerate kinase reaction in glycolysis. A withdrawal of the two-enzyme complexes from the erythrocyte lysates using Sepharose-bound anti-GAPDH antibodies prevents the pH-dependent accumulation of the metabolites. The role of GAPDH in the regulation of glycolysis and the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in erythrocytes is discussed.
KEY WORDS: 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase, hydrogen peroxide, glycolysis, erythrocytes