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MINI-REVIEW: Mechanisms of Neuroprotective Action of Vitamin D3

A. V. Kalueff1,3*, K. O. Eremin2,3, and P. Tuohimaa3

1Center of Physiology and Biochemical Research, ul. Cheshskaya 6-5, Kiev 01042, Ukraine; E-mail: cpbr@mail.ru

2Institute of Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, ul. Baltiiskaya 8, Moscow 125315, Russia; E-mail: nimerek@yandex.ru

3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Medical School, University of Tampere, Tampere 33014, Finland; fax: (358) 3-215-6170; E-mail: avkalueff@inbox.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received November 24, 2003
This review considers modern data on the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of the neurosteroid vitamin D3 and its receptors in the nervous system. Special attention is paid to Ca2+ regulation, stimulation of neurotrophin release, interaction with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and neuroimmunomodulatory effects of calcitriol, the main biologically active form of vitamin D3, in the nervous system.
KEY WORDS: vitamin D3, calcitriol, nervous system, neuroprotection