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REVIEW: Involvement of Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Anion Carriers in the Uncoupling Effect of Fatty Acids

E. N. Mokhova* and L. S. Khailova

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia; fax: (7-095) 939-0338; E-mail: mokhova@genebee.msu.su

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received July 19, 2004
This paper considers stages of the search (initiated by V. P. Skulachev) for a receptor protein for fatty acids that is involved in their uncoupling effect. Based on these studies, mechanism of the ADP/ATP antiporter involvement in the uncoupling induced by fatty acids was proposed (Skulachev, V. P. (1991) FEBS Lett., 294, 158-162). New data (suppression by carboxyatractylate of the SDS-induced uncoupling, pH-dependence of the ADP/ATP and the glutamate/aspartate antiporter contributions to the uncoupling, etc.) led to modification of this hypothesis. During discussion of the uncoupling effect of fatty acids caused by opening of the Ca2+-dependent pore, special attention is given to the effects of carboxyatractylate added in the presence of ADP. The functioning of the uncoupling protein UCP2 in kidney mitochondria is considered, as well as the diversity observed by us in effects of 200 µM GDP on decrease in Deltapsi under the influence of oleic acid added after H2O2 (in the presence of succinate, oligomycin, malonate). A speculative explanation of the findings is as follows: 1) products of lipid and/or fatty acid peroxidation (PPO) modify the ADP/ATP antiporter in such a way that its involvement in the fatty acid-induced uncoupling is suppressed by GDP; 2) GDP increases the PPO concentration in the matrix by suppression of efflux of fatty acid hydroperoxide anions through the UCP (Goglia, F., and Skulachev, V. P. (2003) FASEB, 17, 1585-1591) and/or of efflux of PPO anions with involvement of the GDP-sensitive ADP/ATP antiporter; 3) PPO can potentiate the oleate-induced decrease in Deltapsi due to inhibition of succinate oxidation.
KEY WORDS: fatty acids, uncoupling, uncoupling proteins, anion carriers, ADP/ATP antiporter, GDP, mitochondria, peroxidation