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Energy Problems in Life Evolution

V. D. Samuilov

Department of Physiology of Microorganisms, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia; fax: (7-095) 939-3807; E-mail: vds@8.cellimm.bio.msu.ru

Received July 6, 2004; Revision received August 9, 2004
Evolutionary aspects of bioenergetics are considered. These include the origin of the first organisms, UV-protection and the beginnings of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the electron donor problem of life and the appearance of oxygenic photosynthesis, oxygen danger and strategies of defense, and the role of oxygen in programmed cell death.
KEY WORDS: evolution, bioenergetics, UV-protection, photosynthesis, oxygen, defense against oxygen, programmed cell death