2Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
Received September 4, 2007
Antioxidants specifically addressed to mitochondria have been studied for their ability to decelerate aging of organisms. For this purpose, a project has been established with participation of several research groups from Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology and some other Russian research institutes as well as two groups from the USA and Sweden, with support by the Mitotechnology company founded by RAInKo company (O. V. Deripaska and Moscow State University). This paper summarizes the first results of the project and estimates its prospects. Within the framework of the project, antioxidants of a new type (SkQ) were synthesized comprising plastoquinone (an antioxidant moiety), a penetrating cation, and decane or pentane linker. Using planar bilayer phospholipid membranes, we selected SkQ derivatives with the highest penetrating ability, namely plastoquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (SkQ1), plastoquinonyl-decyl-rhodamine 19 (SkQR1), and methylplastoquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (SkQ3). Anti- and prooxidant properties of these substances and also of ubiquinone and ubiquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium (MitoQ) were tested on isolated mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cationic quinones are found to be very strong prooxidants, but in lower (sub-micromolar) concentrations they display antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity decreases in the series SkQ1 = SkQR1 > SkQ3 > MitoQ, so the window between the anti- and prooxidant effects is smallest for MitoQ. SkQ1 is rapidly reduced by complexes I and II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, i.e. it is a rechargeable antioxidant. Extremely low concentrations of SkQ1 and SkQR1 completely arrest the H2O2-induced apoptosis in human fibroblasts and HeLa cells (for SkQ1 C1/2 = 1·10-9 M). Higher concentrations of SkQ are required to block necrosis initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, SkQ1 decelerates the development of three types of accelerated aging (progeria) and also of normal aging, and this effect is especially demonstrative at early stages of aging. The same pattern is shown in invertebrates (drosophila and daphnia). In mammals, the effect of SkQs on aging is accompanied by inhibition of development of such age-related diseases as osteoporosis, involution of thymus, cataract, retinopathy, etc. SkQ1 manifests a strong therapeutic action on some already developed retinopathies, in particular, congenital retinal dysplasia. With drops containing 250 nM SkQ1, vision is recovered in 50 of 66 animals who became blind because of retinopathy. SkQ1-containing drops instilled in the early stage of the disease prevent the loss of sight in rabbits with experimental uveitis and restore vision to animals that had already become blind. A favorable effect is also achieved in experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Moreover, the pretreatment of rats with 0.2 nmol SkQ1 per kg body weight significantly decreases the H2O2-induced arrhythmia of the isolated heart. SkQ1 strongly reduces the damaged area in myocardial infarction or stroke and prevents the death of animals from kidney infarction. In p53-/- mice, SkQ1 decreases the ROS level in the spleen cells and inhibits appearance of lymphomas which are the main cause of death of such animals. Thus, it seems reasonable to perform clinical testing of SkQ preparations as promising drugs for treatment of age-related and some other severe diseases of human and animals.
KEY WORDS: aging, mitochondria, reactive oxygen species, SkQs, antioxidants