* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received February 20, 2007; Revision received July 11, 2007
The formation of new capillaries from existing blood vessels is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. In this study we report that amentoflavone, a biflavonoid from Biophytum sensitivum, could inhibit the process of angiogenesis. Amentoflavone at nontoxic concentrations (0.05-0.2 µg/ml) showed significant inhibition in the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. In vivo studies in C57BL/6 mice using amentoflavone showed remarkable inhibition (52.9%) of tumor directed capillary formation. Amentoflavone showed inhibitory effect on the production of various endogenous factors such as IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and VEGF that control the process of angiogenesis. Amentoflavone treatment could increase the production of IL-2 and TIMP-1, which could successfully shift the equilibrium towards an angiostatic condition. The antiangiogenic activity of amentoflavone was supported by its remarkable suppression in sprouting of microvessels from rat aorta. Our results also show that amentoflavone could inhibit the production of VEGF mRNA in B16-F10 cells. These findings indicate that amentoflavone inhibits angiogenesis by disrupting the integrity of endothelial cells and by altering the endogenous factors that are required for the process of neovascularization.
KEY WORDS: amentoflavone, angiogenesis, endothelial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, tube formation