2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received September 15, 2008; Revision received November 20, 2008
Photoactivated DNA analogs of nucleotide excision repair (NER) substrates have been created that are 48-mer duplexes containing in internal positions pyrimidine nucleotides with bulky substituents imitating lesions. Fluorochloroazidopyridyl, anthracenyl, and pyrenyl groups introduced using spacer fragments at 4N and 5C positions of dCMP and dUMP were used as model damages. The gel retardation and photo-induced affinity modification techniques were used to study the interaction of modified DNA duplexes with proteins in HeLa cell extracts containing the main components of NER protein complexes. It is shown that the extract proteins selectively bind and form covalent adducts with the model DNA. The efficiency and selectivity of protein modification depend on the structure of used DNA duplex. Apparent molecular masses of extract proteins, undergoing modification, were estimated. Mutual influence of simultaneous presence of extract proteins and recombinant NER protein factors XPC–HR23B, XPA, and RPA on interaction with the model DNA was analyzed. The extract proteins and RPA competed for interaction with photoactive DNA, mutually decreasing the yield of modification products. In this case the presence of extract proteins at particular concentrations tripled the increase in yield of covalent adducts formed by XPC. It is supposed that the XPC subunit interaction with DNA is stimulated by endogenous HR23B present in the extract. Most likely, the mutual effect of XPA and extract proteins stimulating formation of covalent adducts with model DNA is due to the interaction of XPA with endogenous RPA of the extract. A technique based on the use of specific antibodies revealed that RPA present in the extract is a modification target for photoactive DNA imitating NER substrates.
KEY WORDS: DNA duplexes with bulky substituents, protein factors of pre-incision NER complexes, photoinduced affinity modification