2Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 4, 119991 Moscow, Russia; fax: (495) 137-4101; E-mail: email@example.com
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received July 2, 2008; Revision received September 8, 2008
Angiostatins, kringle-containing fragments of plasminogen, are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Effects of three angiostatin forms, K1-3, K1-4, and K1-4.5 (0-2 µM), on the rate of native Glu-plasminogen activation by its physiological activators in the absence or presence of soluble fibrin were investigated in vitro. Angiostatins did not affect the intrinsic amidolytic activities of plasmin and plasminogen activators of tissue type (tPA) and urokinase type (single-chain scuPA and two-chain tcuPA), but inhibited conversion of plasminogen to plasmin in a dose-dependent manner. All three angiostatins suppressed Glu-plasminogen activation by tcuPA independently of the presence of fibrin, and the inhibitory effect increased in the order: K1-3 < K1-4 < K1-4.5. The inhibitory effects of angiostatins on the scuPA activator activity were lower and further decreased in the presence of fibrin. Angiostatin K1-3 (up to 2 µM) had no effect, while 2 µM angiostatins K1-4 and K1-4.5 inhibited the fibrin-stimulated Glu-plasminogen activation by tPA by 50 and 100%, respectively. The difference in effects of the three angiostatins on the Glu-plasminogen activation by scuPA, tcuPA, and tPA in the absence or presence of fibrin is due to the differences in angiostatin structures, mechanisms of action, and fibrin-specificity of plasminogen activators, as well as due to the influence of fibrin on the Glu-plasminogen conformation. Angiostatins in vivo, which mimic plasminogen-binding activity, can inhibit plasminogen activation stimulated by various proteins (including fibrin) of extracellular matrix, thereby blocking cell migration and angiogenesis. The data of this work indicate that the inhibition of Glu-plasminogen activation under the action of physiological plasminogen activators by angiostatins can be implicated in the complex mechanism of their antiangiogenic and antitumor action.
KEY WORDS: plasminogen, plasminogen activator, plasmin, angiostatin, inhibition of plasminogen activation