2Present address: Institute of Oriental and Classical Studies, Russian State University for the Humanities, 125993 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received September 12, 2009; Revision received October 19, 2009
Cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is able to oxidize such substrates as guaiacol, ferrocene, benzohydroquinone, and potassium ferrocyanide through the peroxidase mechanism, while none of these donors is oxidized in the oxidase reaction (i.e. in the reaction that involves molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor). Peroxidation of guaiacol has been studied in detail. The dependence of the rate of the reaction on the concentration of the enzyme and substrates as well as the effect of various inhibitors of the oxidase reaction on the peroxidase activity have been tested. The dependence of the guaiacol-peroxidase activity on the H2O2 concentration is linear up to the concentration of 8 mM. At higher concentrations of H2O2, inactivation of the enzyme is observed. Guaiacol markedly protects the enzyme from inactivation induced by peroxide. The peroxidase activity of cytochrome bd increases with increasing guaiacol concentration, reaching saturation in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 mM, but then starts falling. Such inhibitors of the ubiquinol-oxidase activity of cytochrome bd as cyanide, pentachlorophenol, and 2-n-heptyl 4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide also suppress its guaiacol-peroxidase activity; in contrast, zinc ions have no influence on the enzyme-catalyzed peroxidation of guaiacol. These data suggest that guaiacol interacts with the enzyme in the center of ubiquinol binding and donates electrons into the di-heme center of oxygen reduction via heme b558, and H2O2 is reduced by heme d. Although the peroxidase activity of cytochrome bd from E. coli is low compared to peroxidases, it might be of physiological significance for the bacterium itself and plays a pathophysiological role for humans and animals.
KEY WORDS: aromatic substrates, cytochrome bd, Escherichia coli, oxidation of phenols, peroxidase, respiratory chain, terminal oxidase