2Mechnikov St. Petersburg State Medical Academy, Piskarevsky pr. 47, 195067 St. Petersburg, Russia; fax: (812) 543-0208; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received November 17, 2009; Revision received March 31, 2010
The role of lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in functional activity of cells under normal and different pathological conditions is discussed. Different pathways of 4-HNE metabolism in tissues are analyzed, with particular focus on the role the glutathione system in this process. 4-HNE is implicated in regulation of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. 4-HNE and metabolic products of other antioxidants (carotenoids) resemble each other in chemical nature of the product and influence general pathways of signal transduction. Manifestation of 4-HNE toxicity under oxidative stress conditions is regarded as a link to many diseases whose pathogenesis is connected with modifications of proteins and nucleic acids.
KEY WORDS: 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, glutathione system, carotenoids, oxidative stress