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REVIEW: Lysophosphatidic Acid Is a Lipid Mediator with Wide Range of Biological Activities. Biosynthetic Pathways and Mechanism of Action

I. N. Berdichevets1*, T. V. Tyazhelova1, Kh. R. Shimshilashvili1, and E. I. Rogaev1,2,3

1Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Gubkina 3, 119991 Moscow, Russia; fax: (499) 132-8962; E-mail: i_berdichevets@hotbox.ru

2Mental Health Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Zagorodnoe Shosse 2, 113122 Moscow, Russia

3Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 303 Belmont Street, Worcester, MA 01604, USA

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received January 22, 2010; Revision received March 15, 2010
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator required for maintaining homeostasis of numerous physiological functions and also involved in development of some pathological processes through interactions with G protein-coupled receptors. Recently many data have appeared about the role of this phospholipid in humans, but pathways of LPA biosynthesis and mechanisms of its action remain unclear. This review presents modern concepts about biosynthesis, reception, and biological activity of LPA in humans. Natural and synthetic LPA analogs are considered in the view of their possible use in pharmacology as agonists and/or antagonists of G protein-coupled receptors of LPA.
KEY WORDS: lysophosphatidic acid, LPA analogs, autotaxin, G protein-coupled receptors, expression of human phospholipase genes

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297910090026