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REVIEW: Toll-Like Receptors and Their Adapter Molecules

A. I. Tukhvatulin1*, D. Yu. Logunov1, D. N. Shcherbinin1, M. M. Shmarov1, B. S. Naroditsky1, A. V. Gudkov2, and A. L. Gintsburg1

1Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, ul. Gamaleya 18, 123098 Moscow, Russia; fax: (495) 193-6183; E-mail: info@riem.ru; amir_tuhvatulin@yahoo.com

2Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm & Carlton Streets, Buffalo, 14263, New York, USA; fax: 1(877)275-7724; E-mail: askrpci@roswellpark.org

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received March 3, 2010
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are among key receptors of the innate mammalian immune system. Receptors of this family are able to recognize specific highly conserved molecular regions (patterns) in pathogen structures, thus initiating reactions of both innate and acquired immune response finally resulting in the elimination of the pathogen. In this case every individual TLR type is able to bind a broad spectrum of molecules of microbial origin characterized by different chemical properties and structures. Recent data demonstrate the existence of a multistep mechanism of the TLR recognition of the pathogen in which, in addition to receptors proper, the involvement of different adapter molecules is necessary. However, functions of separate adapter molecules as well as the principles of formation of a multicomponent system of ligand-specific recognition are still not quite understandable. We describe all identified as well as possible (candidate) adapter TLR molecules by giving their brief characteristics, and we also propose generalized possible variants of the TLR ligand-specific recognition with involvement of adapter molecules.
KEY WORDS: Toll-like receptors, adapter molecules, ligand–receptor recognition

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297910090038