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Novel Inhibitors of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase: Covalent Modification of NAD-Binding Site by Aromatic Thiols

K. A. Chernorizov1, J. L. Elkina2, P. I. Semenyuk1,2, V. K. Švedas1,2, and V. I. Muronetz1,2*

1Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics and 2Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lenin Hills 1, Bldg. 40, 119991 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: vimuronets@belozersky.msu.ru; kirill.chernorizov@gmail.com; psemenyuk@belozersky.msu.ru; feigele@gmail.com; vytas@belozersky.msu.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received June 10, 2010; Revision received July 12, 2010
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC is a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing the formation of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. In cooperation with E3 ubiquitin-kinase Siah1, GAPDH directly participates in the apoptotic death of neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Potential GAPDH inhibitors were screened in silico, and three compounds with high affinity to the NAD-binding site and theoretically capable of forming a disulfide bond with amino acid residue Cys149 were found among cysteine and glutathione derivatives. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was tested on GAPDH from rabbit muscles using isothermal calorimetry and kinetic methods. As a result of experimental screening, we selected two compounds that inhibit GAPDH by forming disulfide bonds with the Cys149 residue in the enzyme active site. Since Cys149 is the key residue not only for the catalyzed reaction, but also for interaction with Siah1, the compounds can be assumed to inhibit the formation of the proapoptotic complex GAPDH–Siah1 and therefore have potential effect against Parkinson’s disease.
KEY WORDS: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, covalent inhibition, cysteine and glutathione derivatives, NAD-binding domain, apoptosis, Parkinson’s disease

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297910120047