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REVIEW: Main Factors Providing Specificity of Repair Enzymes

G. A. Nevinsky

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 8, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia; fax: (3832) 363-5153; E-mail: nevinsky@niboch.nsc.ru

Received June 23, 2010; Revision received October 11, 2010
Specific and nonspecific DNA complex formation with human uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and apurine/apyrimidine endonuclease, as well as with E. coli 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase and RecA protein was analyzed using the method of stepwise increase in DNA-ligand complexity. It is shown that high affinity of these enzymes to any DNA (10–4-10–8 M) is provided by a large number of weak additive contacts mainly with DNA internucleoside phosphate groups and in a less degree with bases of nucleotide links “covered” by protein globules. Enzyme interactions with specific DNA links are comparable in efficiency with weak unspecific contacts and provide only for one-two orders of affinity (10–1-10–2 M), but these contacts are extremely important at stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation and catalysis proper. Only in the case of specific DNA individual for each enzyme alterations in DNA structure provide for efficient adjustment of reacting enzyme atoms and DNA orbitals with accuracy up to 10-15° and, as a result, for high reaction rate. Upon transition from nonspecific to specific DNA, reaction rate (kcat) increases by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Thus, stages of DNA and enzyme structural adaptation as well as catalysis proper are the basis of specificity of repair enzymes.
KEY WORDS: mechanism of action, repair enzymes, uracil-DNA glycosylase, apurine-apyrimidine endonuclease, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, RecA protein

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297911010111