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Received July 30, 2010; Revision received August 20, 2010
To study the interaction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) with apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) within clustered damages, DNA duplexes were created that contained an AP site in one strand and one of its analogs situated opposite the AP site in the complementary strand. Residues of 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran (THF), diethylene glycol (DEG), and decane-1,10-diol (DD) were used. It is shown for the first time that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) cleaves the DNA strands at the positions of DEG and DD residues, and this suggests these groups as AP site analogs. Insertion of DEG and DD residues opposite an AP site decreased the rate of AP site hydrolysis by APE1 similarly to the effect of the THF residue, which is a well-known analog of the AP site, and this allowed us to use such AP DNAs to imitate DNA with particular types of clustered damages. PARP1, isolated and in cell extracts, efficiently interacted with AP DNA with analogs of AP sites producing a Schiff base. PARP1 competes with APE1 upon interaction with AP DNAs, decreasing the level of its cross-linking with AP DNA, and inhibits hydrolysis of AP sites within AP DNAs containing DEG and THF residues. Using glutaraldehyde as a linking agent, APE1 is shown to considerably decrease the amount of AP DNA-bound PARP1 dimer, which is the catalytically active form of this enzyme. Autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP1 decreased its inhibitory effect. The possible involvement of PARP1 and its automodification in the regulation of AP site processing within particular clustered damages is discussed.
KEY WORDS: affinity modification, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1, Schiff base, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and their analogs