2Institute of Clinical Immunology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, ul. Yadrintsevskaya 14, 630094 Novosibirsk, Russia; fax: (383) 236-0329; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received August 27, 2010; Revision received September 20, 2010
Nrf2 regulates expression of genes containing antioxidant-respons(iv)e element (ARE) in their promoters and plays a pivotal role among all redox-sensitive transcription factors. Nrf2 is constitutively controlled by repressor protein Keap1, which acts as a molecular sensor of disturbances in cellular homeostasis. These molecular patterns are in close interconnection and function as parts of the integrated redox-sensitive signaling system Nrf2/Keap1/ARE. Depending on cellular redox balance, activity of this signaling system changes at the levels of transcription, translation, posttranslational modification, nuclear translocation of transcription factor, and its binding to ARE-driven gene promoters. This review summarizes current conceptions of Nrf2/Keap1/ARE induction and inactivation.
KEY WORDS: redox regulation, Nrf2, Keap1, antioxidant-respons(iv)e element (ARE)