Received September 13, 2010; Revision received March 28, 2011
This review presents observations on the role of Epac proteins (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) in immunoregulation mechanisms. Signaling pathways that involve Epac proteins and their domain organization and functions are considered. The role of Epac1 protein expressed in the immune system cells is especially emphasized. Molecular mechanisms of the cAMP-dependent signal via Epac1 are analyzed in monocytes/macrophages, T-cells, and B-lymphocytes. The role of Epac1 is shown in the regulation of adhesion, leukocyte chemotaxis, as well as in phagocytosis and bacterial killing. The molecular cascade initiated by Epac1 is examined under conditions of antigen activation of T-cells and immature B-lymphocytes.
KEY WORDS: Epac proteins, monocytes/macrophages, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes