2Faculty of Basic Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky pr. 31/5, 119192 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received June 27, 2012; Revision received August 27, 2012
Insulin stimulates carbohydrate uptake by cells and induces their conversion into lipids as a more efficient form of energy storage. Insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in glucose uptake by muscle and adipose cells and also with a decrease in glycogen synthesis on retention of glucose synthesis by liver cells. Disorders in the insulin signaling cascade on development of insulin resistance can be caused by both changes in functioning of transcriptional factors and in the secretion profile of hormone-like substances. Diacylglycerols and ceramides responsible for activation of some kinases and phosphatases can directly trigger these changes in muscle and liver cells. In adipose tissue, insulin mainly stimulates adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation) and lipogenesis (lipid accumulation in the cells). Thus, studies on the action mechanisms of factors influencing adipogenesis can be of help for understanding the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance.
KEY WORDS: insulin resistance, insulin, adipogenesis, adipose tissue, Prep1