2Current address: University of Michigan School of Medicine, 1301 Catherine Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received July 4, 2012; Revision received September 4, 2012
The redox-sensitive signaling system Keap1/Nrf2/ARE plays a key role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis under stress, inflammatory, carcinogenic, and proapoptotic conditions, which allows us to consider it as a pharmacological target. Here we review the basic regulatory mechanisms of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system, key targets for pharmacological intervention, and interconnection of this system with other redox-sensitive transcriptional factors. We also discuss the range of currently available pharmaceuticals. Finally, we promote “indirect” antioxidants as a promising strategy for prevention and treatment of wide range of diseases associated with oxidative stress.
KEY WORDS: Nrf2, antioxidant-responsive element (ARE), transcription factors, pharmaceuticals