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Mitochondria-Addressed Cations Decelerate the Leaf Senescence and Death in Arabidopsis thaliana and Increase the Vegetative Period and Improve Crop Structure of the Wheat Triticum aestivum

E. V. Dzyubinskaya1, I. F. Ionenko2, D. B. Kiselevsky1, V. D. Samuilov1*, and F. D. Samuilov3

1Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia; fax: (495) 939-3807; E-mail: vdsamuilov@mail.ru

2Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lobachevskogo 2/31, 420111 Kazan, Russia

3Kazan State Agrarian University, ul. K. Marksa 65, 420015 Kazan, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received May 22, 2012; Revision received September 24, 2012
Plastoquinone or its methylated form covalently bound to the membrane-penetrating decyltriphenylphosphonium cation (SkQ1 and SkQ3) retarded the senescence of Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves and their death. Dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP+) had a similar effect. Much like SkQ1, C12TPP+ prevented production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by the fluorescence of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein in mitochondria of the plant cells. SkQ1 augmented the length of the vegetation period and the common and productive tillering, improved the crop structure and the productivity of the wheat Triticum aestivum. These results indicate that the tested compounds act as antioxidants, that ROS participate in aging and death of A. thaliana leaves, and wheat tillering is increased and the crop structure is improved by SkQ1.
KEY WORDS: mitochondria-addressed compounds, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, Arabidopsis thaliana, vegetation period, crop structure, Triticum aestivum

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297913010082