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Interaction of N-Acylated and N-Alkylated Chitosans Included in Liposomes with Lipopolysaccharide of Gram-Negative Bacteria

G. A. Naberezhnykh1*, V. I. Gorbach1, G. N. Likhatskaya1, S. Yu. Bratskaya2, and T. F. Solov’eva1

1G. B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 100 let Vladivostoku 159, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia; fax: (423) 231-4050; E-mail: naber1953@mail.ru

2Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. 100 let Vladivostoku 159, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia; fax: (423) 231-1889

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received August 7, 2012; Revision received October 26, 2012
The interactions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the polycation chitosan and its derivatives – high molecular weight chitosans (300 kDa) with different degree of N-alkylation, its quaternized derivatives, N-monoacylated low molecular weight chitosans (5.5 kDa) – entrapped in anionic liposomes were studied. It was found that the addition of chitosans changes the surface potential and size of negatively charged liposomes, the magnitudes of which depend on the chitosan concentration. Acylated low molecular weight chitosan interacts with liposomes most effectively. The binding of alkylated high molecular weight chitosan with liposomes increases with the degree of its alkylation. The analysis of interaction of LPS with chitoliposomes has shown that LPS-binding activity decreased in the following order: liposomes coated with a hydrophobic chitosan derivatives > coated with chitosan > free liposomes. Liposomes with N-acylated low molecular weight chitosan bind LPS more effectively than liposomes coated with N-alkylated high molecular weight chitosans. The increase in positive charge on the molecules of N-alkylated high molecular weight chitosans at the cost of quaternization does not lead to useful increase in efficiency of binding chitosan with LPS. It was found that increase in LPS concentration leads to a change in surface ζ-potential of liposomes, an increase in average hydrodynamic diameter, and polydispersity of liposomes coated with N-acylated low molecular weight chitosan. The affinity of the interaction of LPS with a liposomal form of N-acylated chitosan increases in comparison with free liposomes. Computer simulation showed that the modification of the lipid bilayer of liposomes with N-acylated low molecular weight chitosan increases the binding of lipopolysaccharide without an O-specific polysaccharide with liposomes due to the formation of additional hydrogen and ionic bonds between the molecules of chitosan and LPS.
KEY WORDS: lipopolysaccharide, chitosan, liposomes, binding, computer modeling

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297913030139