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REVIEW: The Protein Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation System: Its Role in Genome Stability and Lifespan Determination

G. A. Shilovsky1, A. N. Khokhlov1*, and S. I. Shram2

1Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: khokhlov@genebee.msu.su

2Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurchatov Sq. 2, 123182 Moscow, Russia; tel.: +7 (499) 196-0213; E-mail: shram@img.ras.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received February 19, 2013
The processes that lead to violation of genome integrity are known to increase with age. This phenomenon is caused both by increased production of reactive oxygen species and a decline in the efficiency of antioxidant defense system as well as systems maintaining genome stability. Accumulation of different unrepairable genome damage with age may be the cause of many age-related diseases and the development of phenotypic and physiological signs of aging. It is also clear that there is a close connection between the mechanisms of the maintenance of genome stability, on one hand, and the processes of spontaneous tumor formation and lifespan, on the other. In this regard, the system of protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activated in response to a variety of DNA damage seems to be of particular interest. Data accumulated to date suggest it to be a kind of focal point of cellular processes, guiding the path of cell survival or death depending on the degree of DNA damage. This review summarizes and analyzes data on the involvement of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in various mechanisms of DNA repair, its interaction with progeria proteins, and the possible role in the development of spontaneous tumors and lifespan determination. Special attention is given to the relationship between various polymorphisms of the human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 gene and longevity.
KEY WORDS: poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase, genome stability, aging, DNA repair, lifespan

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297913050015