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Received October 28, 2013; Revision received November 12, 2013
In the present work we studied the effect of antioxidants of the SkQ1 family (10-(6′-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium) on the oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by a lipophilic free radical initiator 2,2′-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) and a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). SkQ1 was found to protect erythrocytes from hemolysis, 2 μM being the optimal concentration. Both the oxidized and reduced SkQ1 forms exhibited protective properties. Both forms of SkQ1 also inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes induced by the lipophilic free radical initiator AMVN as detected by accumulation of malondialdehyde. However, in the case of induction of erythrocyte oxidation by AAPH, the accumulation of malondialdehyde was not inhibited by SkQ1. In the case of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the rhodamine-containing analog SkQR1 exerted a comparable protective effect at the concentration of 0.2 μM. At higher SkQ1 and SkQR1 concentrations, the protective effect was smaller, which was attributed to the ability of these compounds to facilitate hemolysis in the absence of oxidative stress. We found that plastoquinone in the oxidized form of SkQ1 could be reduced by erythrocytes, which apparently accounted for its protective action. Thus, the protective effect of SkQ in erythrocytes, which lack mitochondria, proceeded at concentrations that are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those that were active in isolated mitochondria.
KEY WORDS: antioxidants, oxidative stress, SkQ1, hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, erythrocytes, AAPH, AMVN