2Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 32, 119991 Moscow, Russia; fax: +7 (499) 135-1405; E-mail: email@example.com
3Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia; fax: +7 (495) 939-0338; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
4German Rheumatism Research Center, Leibnitz Institute, Chariteplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany; fax: +49-30-284-60-603; E-mail: email@example.com
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received July 14, 2014
The emergence of genetically engineered biological agents opened new prospects in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Cytokines responsible for regulation of a wide range of processes during development of the normal immune response are among the most successful therapeutic targets. Studies carried out in recent decades and accompanied by rapid development of biotechnology have promoted establishing in detail the role and place of cytokines in autoimmune and inflammatory pathologies. Nevertheless, mechanisms that underlie anti-cytokine therapy are still not fully understood. This review examines the role of such cytokines as TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 in the development of inflammatory processes and the action mechanisms of their inhibitors.
KEY WORDS: cytokines, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, autoimmunity, chronic inflammation