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REVIEW: Mitochondrial Matrix Processes

I. O. Mazunin1*, S. A. Levitskii2, M. V. Patrushev1,2, and P. A. Kamenski1,2*

1Immanuil Kant Baltic Federal University, Institute of Chemistry and Biology, 236038 Kaliningrad, Russia; fax: +7 (4012) 595-595; E-mail: IMazunin@kantiana.ru

2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, 119991 Moscow, Russia; fax: +7 (495) 939-4309; E-mail: piotr.kamenski@gmail.com

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received July 6, 2015; Revision received July 16, 2015
Mitochondria possess their own genome that, despite its small size, is critically important for their functioning, as it encodes several dozens of RNAs and proteins. All biochemical processes typical for bacterial and nuclear DNA are described in mitochondrial matrix: replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. Commonly, their mechanisms are similar to those found in bacteria, but they are characterized by several unique features. In this review, we provide an overall description of mitochondrial matrix processes paying special attention to the typical features of such mechanisms.
KEY WORDS: mitochondria, mtDNA, nucleoid, transcription, replication, repair, recombination

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297915110036