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Received August 7, 2015; Revision received November 5, 2015
Glutathione reductase (EC 220.127.116.11) is one of the main antioxidant enzymes of the plant cell. In Arabidopsis thaliana, glutathione reductase is encoded by two genes: the gr1 gene encodes the cytosolic-peroxisomal form, and the gr2 gene encodes the chloroplast-mitochondrial form. Little is known about the regulation of expression of plant glutathione reductase genes. In the present work, we have demonstrated that gr2 (but not gr1) gene expression in Arabidopsis leaves changes depending on changes in redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Expression of both the gr1 and gr2 genes was induced by reactive oxygen species. In heterotrophic suspension cell culture of Arabidopsis, expression of both studied genes did not depend on H2O2 level or on changes in the redox state of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Our data indicate that chloroplasts are involved in the regulation of the glutathione reductase gene expression in Arabidopsis.
KEY WORDS: reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide, glutathione reductase, redox-regulation, chloroplast-nuclear regulation of gene expression, Arabidopsis thaliana