* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received May 31, 2016; Revision received August 1, 2016
Atherosclerosis contributes to the development of many cardiovascular diseases, which remain the leading cause of death in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is caused by dyslipidemia and mediated by both innate and adaptive immune responses. Inflammation is a key factor at all stages of atherosclerosis progression. Cells involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis were shown to be activated by soluble factors, cytokines, that strongly influence the disease development. Pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate atherosclerosis progression, while anti-inflammatory cytokines ameliorate the disease. In this review, we discuss the latest findings on the role of cytokines in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
KEY WORDS: cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, inflammation, immune cells, adhesion molecules, cytokines