2Irkutsk Research Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033 Irkutsk, Russia
3Irkutsk State University, 664003 Irkutsk, Russia; E-mail: email@example.com
4Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033 Irkutsk, Russia
5Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 664033 Irkutsk, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received June 29, 2016; Revision received July 25, 2016
This review considers the functions of extracellular actin – cell surface bound, associated with extracellular matrix, or freely circulating. The role of this protein in different pathological processes is analyzed: its toxic effects and involvement in autoimmune diseases as an autoantigen. The extracellular actin clearance system and its role in protection against the negative effects of actin are characterized. Levels of free-circulating actin, anti-actin immunoglobulins, and components of the actin clearance system as prognostic biomarkers for different diseases are reviewed. Experimental approaches to protection against excessive amounts of free-circulating F-actin are discussed.
KEY WORDS: actin, danger associated molecular patterns, gelsolin, Gc-globulin, anti-actin antibodies, pathologies, biomarkers