2All-Russia Research Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127550 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received September 1, 2016; Revision received October 3, 2016
Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character. “Mature” peptides appear mainly due to processing of protein precursors with (or without) additional enzymatic modifications. Plant peptides differ in origin, structure, and functional properties. Their specific action is due to binding with respective receptors and interactions with various proteins and other factors. Peptides can also regulate physiological functions by direct peptide–protein interactions. Peptide action is coordinated with the action of known phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, and others); thus, peptides control phytohormonal signal pathways.
KEY WORDS: regulatory peptides, cell differentiation, plant growth and development, phytohormones