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REVIEW: Solid/Gas Biocatalysis

L. M. Kulishova1* and D. O. Zharkov1,2*

1Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia; E-mail: kulishova@niboch.nsc.ru

2Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia; E-mail: dzharkov@niboch.nsc.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received October 10, 2016; Revision received October 23, 2016
Solid/gas biocatalysis is a nontraditional reaction system that employs the ability of some enzymes, being in the solid state, to catalyze reactions of substrates in the gas phase. Manipulation of the reaction parameters (temperature and pressure) in the solid/gas system allows precise control over the thermodynamic activity of water and substrate and creation of a controlled microenvironment for the enzyme, making it an appropriate model for enzymology studies. Owing to such advantages as high stability of dry enzymes and cofactors and easy fractionation of gas mixtures, solid/gas biotechnology has already found several industrial applications. Here we review key thermodynamic factors affecting the properties of enzymes, including their activity and stability, in a solid/gas system. Examples of promising enzymes and microorganisms for development and improvement of solid/gas biocatalytic technologies in organic synthesis, biosensors, and green chemistry are discussed.
KEY WORDS: solid/gas biocatalysis, protein hydration, lyophilized enzymes, immobilized enzymes, lipases, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, dehalogenases

DOI: 10.1134/S000629791702002X