2National Research Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received October 17, 2016; Revision received November 14, 2016
Evolution and natural selection of tumoral clones in the process of transformation and the following carcinogenesis can be called natural clonal evolution. Its main driving factors are internal: genetic instability initiated by driver mutations and microenvironment, which enables selective pressure while forming the environment for cell transformation and their survival. We present our overview of contemporary research dealing with mechanisms of carcinogenesis in different localizations from precancerous pathologies to metastasis and relapse. It shows that natural clonal evolution establishes intratumoral heterogeneity and enables tumor progression. Tumors of monoclonal origin are of low-level intratumoral heterogeneity in the initial stages, and this increases with the size of the tumor. Tumors of polyclonal origin are of extremely high-level intratumoral heterogeneity in the initial stages and become more homogeneous when larger due to clonal expansion. In cases of chemotherapy-induced clonal evolution of a tumor, chemotherapy becomes the leading factor in treatment. The latest research shows that the impact of chemotherapy can radically increase the speed of clonal evolution and lead to new malignant and resistant clones that cause tumor metastasis. Another option of chemotherapy-induced clonal evolution is formation of a new dominant clone from a clone that was minor in the initial tumor and obtained free space due to elimination of sensitive clones by chemotherapy. As a result, in ~20% of cases, chemotherapy can stimulate metastasis and relapse of tumors due to clonal evolution. The conclusion of the overview formulates approaches to tumor treatment based on clonal evolution: in particular, precision therapy, prediction of metastasis stimulation in patients treated with chemotherapy, methods of genetic evaluation of chemotherapy efficiency and clonal-oriented treatment, and approaches to manipulating the clonal evolution of tumors are presented.
KEY WORDS: clonal evolution, tumor, chemotherapy, mutation, metastasis