2Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: email@example.com
3St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 197110 St. Petersburg, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received September 26, 2016; Revision received November 18, 2016
Exogenous short biologically active peptides epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly), bronchogen (Ala-Glu-Asp-Leu), and vilon (Lys-Glu) at concentrations 10–7-10–9 M significantly influence growth, development, and differentiation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus cultures. Epitalon and bronchogen, in particular, both increase growth of calluses and stimulate formation and growth of leaves in plant regenerants. Because the regulatory activity of the short peptides appears at low peptide concentrations, their action to some extent is like that of the activity of phytohormones, and it seems to have signaling character and epigenetic nature. The investigated peptides modulate in tobacco cells the expression of genes including genes responsible for tissue formation and cell differentiation. These peptides differently modulate expression of CLE family genes coding for known endogenous regulatory peptides, the KNOX1 genes (transcription factor genes) and GRF (growth regulatory factor) genes coding for respective DNA-binding proteins such as topoisomerases, nucleases, and others. Thus, at the level of transcription, plants have a system of short peptide regulation of formation of long-known peptide regulators of growth and development. The peptides studied here may be related to a new generation of plant growth regulators. They can be used in the experimental botany, plant molecular biology, biotechnology, and practical agronomy.
KEY WORDS: cell differentiation, Nicotiana tabacum, gene expression, short peptides, plant growth regulation