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Glutamic Acid as Enhancer of Protein Synthesis Kinetics in Hepatocytes from Old Rats

V. Y. Brodsky1*, L. A. Malchenko1, N. N. Butorina1, D. S. Lazarev (Konchenko)2, N. D. Zvezdina1, and T. K. Dubovaya2

1Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117808 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: brodsky.idb@bk.ru

2Pirogov Russian State Medical University, 117513 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received April 25, 2017; Revision received May 4, 2017
Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid. Inhibition of metabotropic receptors of glutamic acid with α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (0.01 mg/ml) abolished the effect of glutamic acid. The amplitude of oscillation of the protein synthesis rhythm in a cell population characterizes synchronization of individual oscillations caused by direct cell–cell communications. Hence, glutamic acid, acting as a receptor-dependent transmitter, enhanced direct cell–cell communications of hepatocytes that were decreased with aging. As differentiated from other known membrane signaling factors (gangliosides, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), glutamic acid can penetrate into the brain and thus influence the communications and protein synthesis kinetics that are disturbed with aging not only in hepatocytes, but also in neurons.
KEY WORDS: aging, protein synthesis kinetics, protein synthesis rhythm, glutamic acid, biochemistry of direct cell–cell communications

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297917080119