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REVIEW: Klotho Protein: Its Role in Aging and Central Nervous System Pathology

I. S. Boksha1,2*, T. A. Prokhorova1, O. K. Savushkina1, and E. B. Tereshkina1

1Mental Health Research Center, 115522 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: boksha_irina@mail.ru

2Gamaleya Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 123098 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: boksha_irina@gamaleya.org

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received April 28, 2017; Revision received June 13, 2017
This review is devoted to Klotho protein and recent evidences for its functions in the brain. Information on transcriptional regulation of the klotho gene and posttranslational modifications of the protein resulting in multiple forms of Klotho is reviewed. Evidence is summarized that Klotho regulates the activity of protein factors, enzymes, and receptors, including data suggesting the importance of its glycosidase activity. Effects of Klotho on components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system, signal cascades involving protein kinases and protein phosphorylation, as well as oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination are discussed. A possible contribution is proposed for Klotho levels in the development of central nervous system pathologies including mental disorders.
KEY WORDS: Klotho protein, aging, brain, signal cascades, myelination, glutamate system, mental pathology

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297917090024