* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received April 24, 2017; Revision received June 14, 2017
The role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase A (PKA) in leptin and ghrelin regulation of formation of adaptive (a) subpopulations of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper (h) cells producing interleukin-17A) (aTһ17) and of T-regulatory lymphocytes (aTreg) in the context of physiological pregnancy is established. It is shown that leptin at a concentration typical for the second half of pregnancy (trimesters II-III) enhances the differentiation of aTһ17 with a high level of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production and the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR6 with the participation of PI3K. Simultaneously, leptin reduces formation of aTreg expressing the suppressor molecule CTLA-4, which determines the function of these cells. Ghrelin at a concentration characteristic of the first half of pregnancy (trimesters I-II), in contrast, enhances aTreg formation and, in parallel, reduces the level aTһ17 (that express CCR6) and the IL-17A production by aTh17. PKA, likewise PI3K, participates in regulatory effects of ghrelin on the formation of aTһ17 and aTreg. The combined action of leptin and ghrelin (via PKA participation) enhances formation of only aTreg, which determines the priority of this molecular mechanism and explains why the investigated hormones with reciprocal differentiating potential do not come into antagonism at the level of immune system cells during pregnancy.
KEY WORDS: leptin, ghrelin, aTh17, aTreg, IL-17A, PKA, PI3K