* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received April 28, 2017; Revision received October 8, 2017
Mitochondria perform many essential functions in eukaryotic cells. Being the main producers of ATP and the site of many catabolic and anabolic reactions, they participate in intracellular signaling, proliferation, aging, and formation of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial dysfunction is the cause of many diseases and even cell death. The functioning of mitochondria in vivo is impossible without interaction with other cellular compartments. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling is a signaling pathway connecting mitochondria and the nucleus. The major signal transducers in the yeast retrograde response are Rtg1p, Rtg2p, and Rtg3p proteins, as well as four additional negative regulatory factors – Mks1p, Lst8p, and two 14-3-3 proteins (Bmh1/2p). In this review, we analyze current information on the retrograde signaling in yeast that is regarded as a stress or homeostatic response mechanism to changes in various metabolic and biosynthetic activities that occur upon mitochondrial dysfunction. We also discuss relations between retrograde signaling and other signaling pathways in the cell.
KEY WORDS: retrograde signaling, yeast, TOR, RTG, autophagy, alternative oxidase, pleiotropic drug resistance