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Negative Cooperativity in the Interaction of Prostaglandin H Synthase-1 with the Competitive Inhibitor Naproxen Can Be Described as the Interaction of a Non-competitive Inhibitor with Heterogeneous Enzyme Preparation

I. S. Filimonov1, A. P. Berzova2, V. I. Barkhatov1, A. V. Krivoshey1, N. A. Trushkin1, and P. V. Vrzheshch1,2*

1Lomonosov Moscow State University, International Biotechnological Center, 119991 Moscow, Russia

2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, 119991 Moscow, Russia; E-mail: biocentr@list.ru

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received April 28, 2017; Revision received August 30, 2017
The kinetic mechanism of the interaction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with their main pharmacological target, prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS), has not yet been established. We showed that inhibition of PGHS-1 from sheep vesicular glands by naproxen (a representative of NSAIDs) demonstrates a non-competitive character with respect to arachidonic acid and cannot be described within a framework of the commonly used kinetic schemes. However, it can be described by taking into account the negative cooperativity of naproxen binding to the cyclooxygenase active sites of the PGHS-1 homodimer (the first naproxen molecule forms a more stable complex (K1 = 0.1 µM) with the enzyme than the second naproxen molecule (K2 = 9.2 µM)). An apparent non-competitive interaction of PGHS-1 with naproxen is due to slow dissociation of the enzyme–inhibitor complexes. The same experimental data could also be described using commonly accepted kinetic schemes, assuming that naproxen interacts was a mixture of two enzyme species with the inhibition constants Kα = 0.05 µM and Kβ = 18.3 µM. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations show that the phenomenon of kinetic convergence of these two models has a general nature: when K2 >> K1, the kinetic patterns (for transient kinetics and equilibrium state) generated by the cooperative model could be described by a scheme assuming the presence of two enzyme forms with the inhibition constants Kα = K1/2, Kβ = 2·K2. When K2 << K1, the cooperative model can be presented as a scheme with two inhibitor molecules simultaneously binding to the enzyme with the observed inhibition constant K (K = K1·K2). The assumption on the heterogeneity of the enzyme preparation in relation to its affinity to the inhibitor can be used instead of the assumption on the negative cooperativity of the enzyme–inhibitor interactions for convenient and easy practical description of such phenomena in enzymology, biotechnology, pharmacology, and other fields of science.
KEY WORDS: PGHS-1, COX-1, cyclooxygenase, NSAIDs, inhibitors, naproxen, Aleve, kinetics, cooperativity, homodimer

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297918020049