Received February 28, 2018; Revision received April 9, 2018
Translation factor eIF5A participates in protein synthesis at the stage of polypeptide chain elongation. Two eIF5A isoforms are known that are encoded by related genes whose expression varies significantly in different tissues. The eIF5A1 isoform is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed gene, while the eIF5A2 isoform is expressed in few normal tissues and is an oncogene by a number of parameters. Unique feature of eIF5A isoforms is that they are the only two proteins that contain amino acid hypusine. Modification with hypusine is critical requirement for eIF5A activity. Another distinctive feature of eIF5A is its involvement in the translation of only a subset of the total population of cell mRNAs. The genes for which mRNAs translation requires eIF5A are the members of certain functional groups and are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory processes, and regulation of transcription and RNA metabolism. The involvement of eIF5A is necessary for the translation of proteins containing oligoproline fragments and some other structures. Modification of eIF5A by hypusine is implemented by two highly specialized enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), which are not involved in other biochemical reactions. Intracellular activity of these enzymes is closely associated with systems of protein acetylation, polyamine metabolism and other biochemical processes. Inhibition of DHS and DOHH activity provides the possibility of pharmacological control of eIF5A activity and expression of eIF5A-dependent genes.
KEY WORDS: eIF5A, hypusine, polyamines, translation, regulation of gene expression