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REVIEW: Extracellular Matrix in the Regulation of Stem Cell Differentiation

E. S. Novoseletskaya1,2, O. A. Grigorieva1, A. Yu. Efimenko1,2,a*, and N. I. Kalinina2

1Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Medical Research and Education Center, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Medicine, 119991 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received November 9, 2018; Revised December 6, 2018; Accepted December 6, 2018
Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fill the space between cells in multicellular organisms, contributing to the structure of organs and tissues. The mechanical properties of ECM are well studied. At present, the role of individual ECM components and the three-dimensional tissue-specific matrices in the regulation of cell functional activity, proliferation, migration, acquisition of a specialized phenotype and its maintenance is intensively studied. In this review, we described main ECM structural proteins, enzymes, and extracellular vesicles and present the data on the participation of ECM components in the regulation of stem cell differentiation and self-maintenance, as well as approaches to the modeling of stem cells microenvironment using decellularized ECM.
KEY WORDS: extracellular matrix, stem cells, differentiation, stem cell niche, extracellular vesicles, decellularization

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297919030052