2Mari State University, 424000 Yoshkar-Ola, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received February 19, 2019; Revised March 18, 2019; Accepted March 19, 2019
Mitochondria are among the most important cell organelles involved in the regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. During the last decade, a number of molecular structures responsible for the mitochondrial calcium transport have been identified including the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU), Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX), and Ca2+/H+ antiporter (Letm1). The review summarizes the data on the structure, regulation, and physiological role of such structures. The pathophysiological mechanism of Ca2+ transport through the cyclosporine A-sensitive mitochondrial permeability transition pore is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the mitochondrial pore opening, namely, formation of the lipid pore induced by saturated fatty acids, and its role in Ca2+ transport are described in detail.
KEY WORDS: mitochondria, Ca2+ transport, MCU, NCLX, MPT pore, mitochondrial pore, lipid pore