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REVIEW: Advances and Challenges of Nanoparticle-Based Macrophage Reprogramming for Cancer Immunotherapy

K. S. Kapitanova1, V. A. Naumenko2,a*, A. S. Garanina2, P. A. Melnikov3, M. A. Abakumov2,4, and I. B. Alieva5,b*

1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, 119991 Moscow, Russia

2National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, 119049 Moscow, Russia

3Serbsky Federal Medical Research Center of Psychiatry and Narcology, Department of Fundamental and Applied Neurobiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 119034 Moscow, Russia

4Russian National Research Medical University, Department of Medical Nanobiotechnology, 117997 Moscow, Russia

5A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received November 8, 2018; Revised February 12, 2019; Accepted February 13, 2019
Despite the progress of modern medicine, oncological diseases are still among the most common causes of death of adult populations in developed countries. The current therapeutic approaches are imperfect, and the high mortality of oncological patients under treatment, the lack of personalized strategies, and severe side effects arising as a result of treatment force seeking new approaches to therapy of malignant tumors. During the last decade, cancer immunotherapy, an approach that relies on activation of the host antitumor immune response, has been actively developing. Cancer immunotherapy is the most promising trend in contemporary fundamental and practical oncology, and restoration of the pathologically altered tumor microenvironment is one of its key tasks, in particular, the reprogramming of tumor macrophages from the immunosuppressive M2-phenotype into the proinflammatory M1-phenotype is pivotal for eliciting antitumor response. This review describes the current knowledge about macrophage classification, mechanisms of their polarization, their role in formation of the tumor microenvironment, and strategies for changing the functional activity of M2-macrophages, as well as problems of targeted delivery of immunostimulatory signals to tumor macrophages using nanoparticles.
KEY WORDS: tumor microenvironment, M1/M2-macrophages, cancer immunotherapy, nanoparticles, intravital imaging

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297919070058