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REVIEW: RNA (C5-cytosine) Methyltransferases

S. A. Kuznetsova1,a*#, K. S. Petrukov2#, F. I. Pletnev2,3,4, P. V. Sergiev1,2,3,5, and O. A. Dontsova2,3,4

1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Functional Genomics, 119234 Moscow, Russia

2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry, 119991 Moscow, Russia

3Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 121205 Skolkovo, Moscow Region, Russia

4Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, 117997 Moscow, Russia

5Petrov National Medical Research Center of Oncology, 197758 St. Petersburg, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

# These authors contributed equally to this work.

Received March 5, 2019; Revised April 16, 2019; Accepted April 16, 2019
The review summarizes the data on pro- and eukaryotic RNA (C5-cytosine) methyltransferases. The structure, intracellular location, RNA targets, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes, as well as the functional role of methylated cytosine residues in RNA are presented. The functions of RNA (C5-cytosine) methyltransferases unassociated with their methylation activity are discussed. Special attention is given to the similarities and differences in the structures and mechanisms of action of RNA and DNA methyltransferases. The data on the association of mutations in the RNA (C5-cytosine) methyltransferases genes and human diseases are presented.
KEY WORDS: post-transcriptional modification of RNA, RNA (C5-cytosine) methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine, RNA methylation

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297919080029