2Kulakov National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 117198 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received February 20, 2019; Revised May 27, 2019; Accepted May 28, 2019
Differential expression of 30,003 genes was studied in the liver of female Wistar rats fed with isocaloric diets with the excess of fat, fructose, or cholesterol, or their combinations for 62 days using the method of whole-transcriptome profiling on a microchip. Relative mRNA expression levels of the Asah2, Crot, Crtc2, Fmo3, GSTA2, LOC1009122026, LOC102551184, NpY, NqO1, Prom1, Retsat, RGD1305464, Tmem104, and Whsc1 genes were also determined by RT-qPCR. All the tested diets affected differently the key metabolic pathways (KEGGs). Significant changes in the expression of steroid metabolism gene were observed in the liver of animals fed with the tested diets (except the high-fat high fructose diet). Both high-fat and high-fructose diets caused a significant decrease in the expression of squalene synthase (FDFT1 gene) responsible for the initial stage of cholesterol synthesis. On the contrary, in animals fed with the high-cholesterol diet (0.5% cholesterol), expression of the FDFT1 gene did not differ from the control group; however, these animals were characterized by changes in the expression of glucose and glycogen synthesis genes, which could lead to the suppression of glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis. At the same time, this group demonstrated different liver tissue morphology in comparison with the animals fed with the high-fructose high-fat diet, manifested as the presence of lipid vacuoles of a smaller size in hepatocytes. The high-fructose and high-fructose high-fat diets affected the metabolic pathways associated with intracellular protein catabolism (endocytosis, phagocytosis, proteasomal degradation, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum), tight junctions and intercellular contacts, adhesion molecules, and intracellular RNA transport. Rats fed with the high-fructose high-fat or high-cholesterol diets demonstrated consistent changes in the expression of the Crot, Prom1, and RGD1305464 genes, which reflected a coordinated shift in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms.
KEY WORDS: transcriptome, liver, rats, RT-PCR, dyslipidemia, in vivo model