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REVIEW: Transcription Factor KLF2 and Its Role in the Regulation of Inflammatory Processes

K. T. Turpaeva

Center for Theoretical Problems of Physicochemical Pharmacology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia

Received May 11, 2019; Revised August 2, 2019; Accepted October 7, 2019
KLF2 is a member of the Krüppel-like transcription factor family of proteins containing highly conserved DNA-binding zinc finger domains. KLF2 participates in the differentiation and regulation of the functional activity of monocytes, T lymphocytes, adipocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. The activity of KLF2 is controlled by several regulatory systems, including the MEKK2,3/MEK5/ERK5/MEF2 MAP kinase cascade, Rho family G-proteins, histone acetyltransferases CBP and p300, and histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5. Activation of KLF2 in endothelial cells induces eNOS expression and provides vasodilatory effect. Many KLF2-dependent genes participate in the suppression of blood coagulation and aggregation of T cells and macrophages with the vascular endothelium, thereby preventing atherosclerosis progression. KLF2 can have a dual effect on the gene transcription. Thus, it induces expression of multiple genes, but suppresses transcription of NF-κB-dependent genes. Transcription factors KLF2 and NF-κB are reciprocal antagonists. KLF2 inhibits induction of NF-κB-dependent genes, whereas NF-κB downregulates KLF2 expression. KLF2-mediated inhibition of NF-κB signaling leads to the suppression of cell response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα and results in the attenuation of inflammatory processes.
KEY WORDS: KLF2, zinc fingers, regulation of transcription, pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelium

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297920010058