2Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangothry, 570006 Mysore, India
3Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology (IMBM), Uppsala Biomedical Centre, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden
4Department of Sericulture, Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysore, 570006 Mysore, India
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received April 1, 2019; Revised October 4, 2019; Accepted October 17, 2019
Suicidal erythrocyte death, or eryptosis, is the key event in eliciting anemia in numerous pathological conditions, including diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cancer, sepsis, etc. Oxidative stress is an important trigger in the acceleration of erythrocyte loss via eryptosis and an underlying mechanism of anemia emergence in the above pathologies. Therefore, there is an increasing demand for identification of antioxidants and anti-eryptotic agents for the management of stress-related ailments. Here, we demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-eryptotic properties of the tamarind seed coat ethanol extract (TSCEE) against 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress and eryptosis. The presence of probable secondary metabolites in the TSCEE extract was investigated by RP-HPLC. Active groups present in the TSCEE were studied by the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetric studies confirmed the antioxidant potential of TSCEE. The protective effect of TSCEE on red blood cells was confirmed by assessing various eryptotic markers, such as reactive oxygen species generation, intracellular calcium levels, and phosphatidylserine exposure. TSCEE reduced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content and restored the levels of glutathione, antioxidant enzymes, and enzymes involved in glutathione replenishment. In conclusion, TSCEE was found to exhibit multiple therapeutic properties, which makes it a promising agent for treating oxidative stress-induced eryptosis and subsequent anemia in various pathologies.
KEY WORDS: tamarind seed coat ethanol extract, reactive oxygen species, eryptosis, glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, antioxidants, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride