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REVIEW: Lipid Rafts in Exosome Biogenesis

G. O. Skryabin1, A. V. Komelkov1,a*, E. E. Savelyeva1, and E. M. Tchevkina1

1Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 115478 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received October 1, 2019; Revised November 28, 2019; Accepted November 28, 2019
Exosomes (secreted extracellular vesicles formed in the intracellular vesicular transport system) play a crucial role in distant cell–cell communication. Exosomes transfer active forms of various biomolecules; the molecular composition of the exosomal cargo is a result of targeted selection and depends on the type of producer cells. The mechanisms underlying exosome formation and cargo selection are poorly understood. It is believed that there are several pathways for exosome biogenesis, although the questions about their independence and simultaneous coexistence in the cell still remain open. The least studied topic is the recently discovered mechanism of exosome formation associated with lipid rafts, or membrane lipid microdomains. Here, we present modern concepts and basic hypotheses on the mechanisms of exosome biogenesis and secretion and summarize current data on the involvement of lipid rafts and their constituent molecules in these processes. Special attention is paid to the analysis of possible role in the exosome formation of raft-forming proteins of the SPFH family, components of planar rafts, and caveolin, the main component of caveolae.
KEY WORDS: exosomes, lipid rafts, SPFH-proteins, caveolin

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297920020054