* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received December 19, 2019; Revised February 18, 2020; Accepted February 18, 2020
Long-term study on the identification of Na,K-ATPase endogenous inhibitors in mammalian tissues has resulted in the discovery of ouabain, marinobufagenin (MBG), and other cardiotonic steroids (CTS) in the blood plasma. Production of ouabain and MBG is increased in essential hypertension and other diseases associated with hypervolemia. Here, we compared the effects of ouabain and MBG on the Na,K-ATPase activity (measured as the transport of Na+, K+, and Rb+ ions) and proliferation and death of human renal epithelial cells (HRECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing α1-Na,K-ATPase. Ouabain concentration that provided the half-maximal inhibition of the Rb+ influx (IC50) into HRECs and HUVECs was 0.07 μM. In both types of cells, the IC50 values for MBG were 10 times higher than for ouabain. Incubation of HREC and HUVEC with 0.001-0.01 μM ouabain for 30 h resulted in 40% increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA; further elevation of ouabain concentration to 0.1 μM completely suppressed DNA synthesis. MBG at the concentration of 0.1 μM activated DNA synthesis by 25% in HRECs, but not in HUVECs; 1 μM MBG completely inhibited DNA synthesis in HRECs and by 50% in HUVECs. In contrast to HRECs, incubation of HUVECs in the serum-free medium induced apoptosis, which was almost completely suppressed by ouabain and MBG at the concentrations of 0.1 and 3 μM, respectively. Based on these data, we can conclude that (i) the effect of MBG at the concentrations detected in the blood plasma (<0.01 μM) on HRECs and HUVECs was not due to the changes in the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio; (ii) the effect of physiological concentrations of ouabain on these cells might be mediated by the activation of Na,K-ATPase, leading to cell proliferation.
KEY WORDS: ouabain, marinobufagenin, Na+/K+ pump, [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio, epithelium, endothelium