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Regulation of Thiamine (Vitamin B1)-Dependent Metabolism in Mammals by p53

V. I. Bunik1,2,3,a*, V. A. Aleshin1,2, X. Zhou4, S. Krishnan4, and A. Karlsson4

1Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

2Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

3Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, Russia

4Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received May 25, 2020; Revised June 9, 2020; Accepted June 9, 2020
Transcriptional factor p53 is a master regulator of energy metabolism. Energy metabolism strongly depends on thiamine (vitamin B1) and/or its natural derivatives. Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), which is a major thiamine derivative, affects p53 binding to DNA. In order to elucidate the mechanism of regulation of thiamine-dependent metabolism by p53, we assessed putative p53-binding sites near transcription starting points in genes coding for transporters and enzymes, whose function is associated with thiamine and/or its derivatives. The predictions were validated by studying cell metabolic response to the p53 inducer cisplatin. Expression of p53 and its known target, p21, has been evaluated in cisplatin-treated and control human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells that possess functional p53 pathway. We also investigated the activity of enzymes involved in the thiamine-dependent energy metabolism. Along with upregulating the expression of p53 and p21, cisplatin affected the activities of metabolic enzymes, whose genes were predicted as carrying the p53-binding sites. The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase GDH2 isoenzyme strongly decreased, while the activities of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and malic enzymes, as well as the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex at its endogenous ThDP level, were elevated. Simultaneously, the activities of NAD+-dependent IDH, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, and two malate dehydrogenase isoenzymes, whose genes were not predicted to have the p53-binding sequences near the transcription starting points, were upregulated by cisplatin. The p53-dependent regulation of the assayed metabolic enzymes correlated with induction of p21 by p53 rather than induction of p53 itself.
KEY WORDS: A549 cells, cisplatin, glutathione, p53, p21, succinyl phosphonate, thiamine-dependent metabolism

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297920070081