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REVIEW: Changes in Gene Expression and Neuroinflammation in the Hippocampus after Focal Brain Ischemia: Involvement in the Long-Term Cognitive and Mental Disorders

Galina T. Shishkina1,a*, Tatiana S. Kalinina1, Natalia V. Gulyaeva2, Dmitry A. Lanshakov1, and Nikolay N. Dygalo1

1Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia

2Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117485 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received October 14, 2020; Revised December 23, 2020; Accepted January 9, 2021
Ischemic brain injuries are accompanied by the long-term changes in gene expression in the hippocampus, the limbic system structure, involved in the regulation of key aspects of the higher nervous activity, such as cognitive functions and emotions. The altered expression of genes and proteins encoded by them may be related to the development of post-ischemic psycho-emotional and cognitive disturbances. Activation of neuroinflammation following stroke in the hippocampus has been suggested to play an essential role in induction of long-lasting consequences. Identification of changes in the gene expression patterns after ischemia and investigation of the dynamics of these changes in the hippocampus are the necessary first steps toward understanding molecular pathways responsible for the development of post-stroke cognitive impairments and mental pathologies.
KEY WORDS: focal brain injuries, neuroinflammation, hippocampus, gene expression, cognitive impairment, depression

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297921060043