2Institute of Mitoengineering, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received February 9, 2021; Revised June 15, 2021; Accepted June 15, 2021
The effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitors, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), triethylenetetramine (trien), and their combination with glucose on cells of the epidermis from pea leaves of different age (rapidly growing young leaves and slowly growing old leaves) was investigated. DDC and trien caused death of the guard cells as determined by destruction of their nuclei. Glucose did not affect destruction of the nuclei induced by SOD inhibitors in the cells from old leaves, but intensified it in the cells from young leaves. 2-Deoxyglucose, an inhibitor of glycolysis, and propyl gallate, SOD-mimic and antioxidant, suppressed destruction of the nuclei that was caused by SOD inhibitors and glucose in cells of the epidermis from the young, but not from the old leaves. Glucose and trien stimulated, and propyl gallate reduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pea epidermis as determined by the fluorescence of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a protonophoric uncoupler of oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation, suppressed the DCF fluorescence in the guard cells. Treatment of the cells with CCCP followed by its removal with washing increased destruction of the nuclei caused by SOD inhibitors and glucose. In young leaves, CCCP was less effective than in old ones. The findings demonstrate the effects of SOD inhibitors and glucose on the cell death and generation of ROS and could indicate glycolysis-dependent ROS production.
KEY WORDS: glucose, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species, programmed cell death, guard cells, pea